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Council on Foreign Relations
Shining Path, Tupac Amaru (Peru, leftists)

IntroductionThe two main Peruvian rebel groups, both leftist, are the Maoist group Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) and the Cuban-inspired Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (Movimiento Revolucionario Tupac Amaru). Both organizations operated most forcefully in the 1980s and early 1990s, when Peru's government fought a costly war...

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The Rise of Political Opposition in Japan

IntroductionJapan, a parliamentary democracy, has been dominated by a single party governing by itself or in coalition with others for nearly all of the last half century. But falling popularity of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), an economy in decline, and growing public dissatisfaction with...

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CIA Probe and the Torture Debate

The decision by Attorney General Eric H. Holder Jr. to appoint a special prosecutor to review past CIA interrogations revives robust debate over whether such a move is healthy or harmful to the United States in its counterterrorism efforts. In his statement explaining why a...

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China-Pakistan Relations

IntroductionSince establishing diplomatic ties in 1951, China and Pakistan have enjoyed a close and mutually beneficial relationship. Pakistan was one of the first countries to recognize the People's Republic of China in 1950 and remained a steadfast ally during Beijing's period of international isolation in...

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FARC, ELN: Colombia’s Left-Wing Guerrillas

IntroductionColombia, one of the closest U.S. allies in Latin America, has been ravaged for decades by a civil war pitting left-wing guerrilla groups against right-wing paramilitary organizations. The two predominant rebel groups-the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (known by its Spanish acronym, FARC) and the...

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Governing Afghanistan

Campaigning for Afghanistan's presidential election is in its final crescendo ahead of the August 20 vote, with citizens just witnessing the unusual spectacle of a nationally televised debate that featured sharp criticism (RFE/RL) of incumbent Hamid Karzai. Yet whether Karzai retains power, analysis from Western...

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China-Taiwan Relations

IntroductionChina and Taiwan, while in practice maintaining a fragile "status quo" relationship, periodically grow impatient with the diplomatic patchwork that has kept the island separate from the Communist mainland since 1949.  After losing the civil war to Communist Chinese and fleeing to Taiwan in 1949,...

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The World Health Organization

IntroductionPart of the UN system, the 60-year-old World Health Organization (WHO) is the world's designated leader for global health issues, particularly in the developing world. At the same time, the WHO's mandate is limited because it can only recommend, not enforce, specific health policies. The...

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Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa

IntroductionAfrica is widely considered among the world's most corrupt places, a factor seen as contributing to the stunted development and impoverishment of many African states. Of the ten countries considered most corrupt in the world, six are in sub-Saharan Africa, according to Transparency International, a...

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